Environmental Studies and Ecology Research Paper

 

ecology research paper

This sample Human Ecology Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. Data Paper. 8 million phenological and sky images from 29 ecosystems from the Arctic to the tropics: the Phenological Eyes Network. Shin Nagai, Tomoko Akitsu, Taku . Top Papers. Read recent popular papers from Journal of Ecology here Top-read | Top-cited. Top-read articles. Journal of Ecology papers downloaded most in Wiley Online Library from January to December are listed below. An integrated analysis of the effects of past land use on forest herb colonization at the landscape scale.


Ecological Research - Springer


This sample Human Ecology Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. If you need help writing your assignment, ecology research paper, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. Also check our tips on how to write a research papersee the lists of research paper topicsand browse research paper examples.

While researching for this research paper on human ecology, ecology research paper, the author perused books and articles about ecology, biology, geography, and anthropology; human ecology uses all these disciplines, and more, toward its own end. Human ecology refuses to condense its focus ecology research paper one approach; it investigates many approaches to a problem. This investigation method involves all the above mentioned disciplines.

However, because its focus is so broad, no one agrees on a concrete definition of human ecology. In an attempt to reveal its definition, this article describes theories, research, and case studies in this field. What happens when the two words composing human ecology are defined separately and then combined? Such a definition is easy to understand in ecology research paper any context, but defining ecology may prove more difficult.

Levine et al. These definitions are great abstractions of the word ecology; but what is the simple dictionary definition? If human ecology is interpreted as literally the ecology of humans, then, logically, it is the study of relationships between humans and their environments.

Is this definition too base for science? Sociologist Robert E. Park felt human ecology was the study of processes or systems that develop to upset or align the biotic balance of equilibriump.

There is a common theme among these mentioned definitions: relationships. Relationships are a large aspect of human ecology, but they do not constitute its entire scope of study. Ecology research paper first is J. Quinn rejects each of these proposals and declares his own theory as the fourth viewpoint: Human ecology borrows from sociology, ecology research paper, and geography to form separate branches of science beneath each discipline.

These branches are under the name human ecology; the branch from sociology is called interactional ecology, the branch from biology is called general ecology applied to man Quinn had not proposed a working definition for this branchand the branch from geography is called human geography. However, the author feels human ecology is ecology research paper opportunistic science that can borrow from all sciences not just sociology, biology, ecology research paper, or geography to understand a given problem.

With this additive, human ecology becomes the holistic view it is. Indeed, human ecology uses all sciences as a working foundation to solve problems between humans and the environment; however, there is much disagreement about its origin. As different flower species share labor to create their similar spatial environment, so do different human groups interact when adapting to their shared spatial environment.

Basically, human ecology studies the relationships between environmental and human systems. In researching this question, one could find that human interrelations are influenced by success or failure of crops. Researchers would then investigate why a harvest was sufficient or insufficient.

If it was insufficient, did erosion cause a strain on crop yields? What caused the erosion? If it was sufficient, did land use practices cause success? And so on. A human ecologist does not stop after the first question is answered. Casey and Schwartzberg provide an exemplary definition of human ecology as a holistic science when they describe its scope as covering relationships between human populations, the environment, technology, human organizations, and social psychologyp.

Being holistic, human ecology absorbs sociological ideas, as well as ideas from many other disciplines, to answer questions. In the s, anthropologist Julian Steward proposed the theory of multilinear evolution and labeled it cultural ecology, ecology research paper. This theory placed subsistence practices at the center of cultural development but allowed cultural evolution variations within each subsistence practice. Leslie Ecology research paperalso an anthropologist, wrote that cultural evolution was directly related to how efficient a culture was at harnessing energy.

Although human ecology has sociological and anthropological roots, its development has transcended the bounds of either field. Indeed, because it is holistic, ecology research paper, human ecology utilizes these disciplines, among others, to solve its questions. When using a holistic view, it is important to remember that parts are not greater than the whole, nor the whole greater than its parts. Following this quote, human ecology acts as a connection between the parts of science but does not completely adhere to a single discipline.

Just as connective tissues in the body are part of neither the bones nor the muscles they connect, so human ecology is not wholly a part of any science it chooses to incorporate. Using this myriad of definitions, human ecology materializes as the study of relationships between human adaptive systems and the adaptive systems of the environments humans inhabit. All organisms must choose their method of survival; their choice is based on getting as much energy from the environment as possible while expending the least amount of energy possible.

This principle explains why humans change environments to suit ecology research paper needs, or even why certain trees alter chemicals in the soil in their favor. However, to make these survival choices, an organism needs access to an environment.

Without an environment, ecology research paper, an organism could not exist. This principle is true mainly for reproductive and ecological reasons, but in humans, it is also true sociologically. Choices are ecology research paper by individuals based upon relationships with other individuals and the environment. Environments also change along with organisms they sustain, because environments and organisms act upon one another and ecology research paper together Sargent,p.

Now, ecology research paper, more than ever, humans have the ability to inflict change ecology research paper all environments across the globe through their survival choices Hawley,p. Human survival choices have been honed over thousands of years through culture. Culture is conveyed through a system of learned symbols—intentional abstractions of an idea or an action. Using culture, humans have shifted their place within ecological communities and attained dominance over available energy in any given community or ecosystem.

They achieved this dominance through learned behaviors, which enabled humans to expand upon existing knowledge. This foundation of knowledge affords humans a great advantage in survival. Culture is simultaneously an adapter of environments and an element of the environment. Note: Hawley uses ecumenic to avoid the confusion that might be created by the connotations of the words economic and social.

But the author feels that ecumenic actually creates more confusion due to its modern religious connotation. Traditionally, inland Eskimos traded caribou hides with coastal Eskimos for whale blubber and other supplies that were unattainable inland.

When Europeans arrived, ecology research paper, coastal Eskimos ceased most trade with inland Eskimos, because Europeans had more attractive trade goods than inland Eskimos. This change in Eskimo life forced inland Eskimos to move toward coastal areas, because they could no longer support themselves without coastal trade. This move is an example of how socioeconomic elements forced inland Eskimos to modify their adaptation systems to biophysical elements.

Both classes of environmental elements have constant and variable conditions. Constant conditions comprise the initial adaptive challenge such as mountains, rivers, ecology research paper, flora, and fauna of an environment, but even these constant conditions can be changed by humans. Variable conditions occur after initial adaptation; they deal with time or duration. Unpredictable or irregular events, such ecology research paper natural disasters, swarms of insects, appearances of new human groups, invasive warfare, and other cultural diffusions are examples of variable conditions existing over time.

To recapitulate, there can be constant biophysical conditions, such as a nearby mineral deposit, and there can be variable biophysical conditions, such as natural disasters. There ecology research paper also be constant socioeconomic conditions, such as permanent settlements, and variable socioeconomic conditions, such as warfare.

Native Americans lived for thousands of years in North America before European contact. Black, ecology research paper, Abrams, and Ruffner conducted a study in northern Pennsylvania, examining exactly which kinds of trees composed forests, a constant biophysical condition, ecology research paper, in different areas, ecology research paper.

They found that forests in areas of low Native American activity were populated mostly with beech, hemlock, ecology research paper, and maple, whereas forests in areas of high Native American activity mostly consisted of oak, beech, hemlock, chestnut, pine, and maple.

Their study showed Native American activity paralleled the growth of stands of oak, hickory, and chestnut. Black walnut occurred only near village sites, and its presence had the highest correlation with Native American influence. As several Native American land practices could have transformed northern hardwood forests to oak-hickory-chestnut forests, the group believes Native Americans shaped tree composition within forests through their land practices.

By clearing forests near villages for agriculture, Native Americans encouraged early-succession edge species. Oak and hickory thrive in open fields and clearings, because they are less shade tolerant than other species. They may have ecology research paper girdling trees competing with the desired species of oak, hickory, and chestnut.

These desired species are adapted to survive fire. Dendrochronology suggests tree disturbances sharply declined after European contact. During the Late Woodland period and the Historic period, Native Americans were an important source of disturbance for forests.

This case study is an example of constant socioeconomic elements shaping constant biophysical elements. Without Native American land practices, oak and hickory would not have been as populous in the forest as they were.

Native Americans certainly influenced where these species grew using constant socioeconomic tactics. The distance to the sun determines the intensity of radiation received from the sun.

Radiation levels are controlled by the solar constant as well as the angle at which the radiation is received. Gravity also limits circulatory systems and, in effect, limits organism height. These gases consisted mostly of water vapor and nitrogen with lesser amounts of other gases.

Water vapors were trapped by gravity, condensed, and fell back to the earth, ecology research paper, forming the oceans. The first ecology research paper were aquatic and grew near volcanoes in warm pools. As oxygen released by plants entered the atmosphere, it oxidized iron and other minerals. When there were no more minerals to use the newly released oxygen, it filled the atmosphere, ecology research paper.

As the atmosphere continued to fill with oxygen, less of the ocean was pounded by radiation, and life could expand its borders. About this time, free oxygen respiration systems developed.

Oxygen continued to fill the atmosphere, displacing more and more radiation from the surface of the earth, and allowed life to move onto land around million years ago. Such movement onto land was not by animals, but by plants. Plants moved from the waters onto the shores and then further inland Levine et al. Earth has the temperature and climate it has because our atmosphere selectively absorbs radiation of specific wavelengths.

 

Human Ecology Research Paper - EssayEmpire

 

ecology research paper

 

Data Paper. 8 million phenological and sky images from 29 ecosystems from the Arctic to the tropics: the Phenological Eyes Network. Shin Nagai, Tomoko Akitsu, Taku . Top Papers. Read recent popular papers from Journal of Ecology here Top-read | Top-cited. Top-read articles. Journal of Ecology papers downloaded most in Wiley Online Library from January to December are listed below. An integrated analysis of the effects of past land use on forest herb colonization at the landscape scale. Human Ecology Research Papers Human Ecology research papers discuss the study of humans and their environments. Human ecology is the study of humans and their environments. These environments include not only their natural environment, but also social environment, and human made environments. Human ecology looks at patterns between humanity and.